Keywords:Neighbourhood Plans, individual motivation, community engagement
Although some researchers have addressed the question of what motivates citizens to become involved in lower tier planning in the UK, the phenomenon is not yet fully understood. A lack of hard data, combined with some mutually contradictory arguments in the field, makes for imperfect analysis, and this can potentially undermine the effectiveness of individual engagement in Neighbourhood Plans (NPs). This paper focuses on what motivates citizens to participate in the process of creating NPs in North West England, and explores past theories on individual motivation. This study achieved its research aims through extensive research of the relevant literature, combined with an empirical study of five neighbourhoods in North West England. The main conclusion drawn from the dissertation is that there are complex and multiple motivations of people participating in NPs, and these impetuses are affected by a range of political, environmental and socio-economic factors. This research offers opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of NPs for researchers and NP stakeholders alike.
Copyright (c) 2021 Xinxin Cao, John Sturzaker
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aitken, M. (2010). A three-dimensional view of public participation in Scottish land-use planning: Empowerment or social control. Planning Theory, 9(3), 248-264. DOI: 10.1177/1473095210366193
Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35 (4), 216-224.
Aspden, J. & Birch, D. (2005). New Localism — Citizen Engagement, Neighbourhoods and Public Services: Evidence from Local Government. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
Bailey, N. and Pill, M. (2015). Can the state empower communities through localism? An evaluation of recent approaches to neighbourhood governance in England. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 33, 289-304. DOI: 10.1068/c12331r
Baker, M., Coaffee, J. and Sherriff, G. (2007). Achieving successful participation in the spatial planning system. Planning Practice & Research, 22 (1), 79-93. DOI: 10.1080/02697450601173371
Bell, J. and Waters, S. (2014). Doing your Research Project: A Guide For First-Time Researchers. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Begg, C., Walker, G. and Kuhlicke, C. (2015). Localism and flood risk management in England: the creation of new inequalities? Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 33, 4: 685-702. DOI: 10.1068/c12216
Birchall, R. J. and Simmons, R. A. (2002). What Motivates Members to Participate in Co-operative and Mutual Businesses? A theoretical model and Some Findings. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 75 (3), 465- 495. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8292.2004.00259.x
Biggam, J. (2015). Succeeding with Your Master’s Dissertation: A Step-By-Step Handbook. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Boaden, N., Goldsmith, M. and Stringer, P. (1982). Public participation in local services. New York: Longman Group Limited.
Brand, R. and Gaffikin, F. (2007). Collaborative planning in an uncollaborated world. Planning Theory, 6 (3), 282-313. DOI: 10.1177/1473095207082036
Brown, G., Yeong, S. and Chin, W. (2013). Assessing the Effectiveness of Public participation in Neighbourhood Planning. Planning Practice & Research, 28 (5), 563-588. DOI: 10.1080/02697459.2013.820037
Campbell, H. and Marshall, R. (2000). Public Involvement and Planning: Looking beyond the One to Many. International Planning Studies, 5 (3), 321-344. DOI: 10.1080/713672862
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. London: SAGE.
Cullingworth, J. B. (1990). Town and Country Planning in Britain. London: Unwin Hyman.
Damer, S. and Hague, C. (1971). Public Participation in Planning: A Review. The Town Planning Review, 42 (3), 217-232.
Department for Communities and Local Government (2009). Strengthening Local Democracy – Consultation. London: Department for Communities and Local Government.
Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) and Pickles, E. (2010). Localism Bill starts a new era of people power. Retrieved July 17, 2016, from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/localism-bill-starts-a-new-era-of-people-power
Derrick Sewell, W. R. and Coppock, J. T. (1977). A perspective on Public Participation in Planning. In Derrick Sewell, W. R. and Coppock, J. T. (1977). Public Participation in Planning. London, New York, Sydney and Toronto: John Wiley and Sons.
Durose, C. and Rees, J. (2012). The rise and fall of neighbourhood in the New Labour era. Policy and Politics, 40 (1), 38-54. DOI: 10.1332/030557310X550079
Ercan, S. A. and Hendriks, C. M. (2013). The democratic challenges a potential of localism: insight from deliberative democracy. Policy Studies, 34 (4), 422-440. DOI: 10.1080/01442872.2013.822701
Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) 'Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research', Qualitative Inquiry, 12 (2), 219-245. DOI: 10.1177/1077800405284363.
Gallent, N. and Robinson, S. (2012) Neighbourhood planning: Communities, networks and governance. Policy Press.
Gallent, N. (2013). Re-connecting ‘people and planning’: parish plans and the English localism agenda. Town Planning Review, 84 (3), 371- 396. DOI: 10.2307/23474319
Gaventa, J. (2004). Representation, community leadership and participation: citizen involvement in neighbourhood renewal and local governance. Retrieved August 27, 2016, from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08cd8ed915d3cfd001664/JGNRUpdf
Hampton, W. (1977). Research into public participation in structure planning. In Derrick Sewell, W.R. and Coppock, J. T. Eds. (1977). Public Participation in Planning. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Hansen, A. D. (2008). Governance Networks and Participation. In Sorensen, E. and Torfing, J. (2008). Theories of democratic network governance. London: Palgrave macmillan.
Horn, R. (2012). Researching and writing dissertations: a complete guide for business and management students. London: CIPD.
Inch, A. (2012). Creating ‘a generation of NIMBYs’? Interpreting the role of the state in managing the politics of urban development. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30, 520 – 535. DOI: 10.1068/c11156
Jones, P. and Evans, J. (2008). Urban Regeneration in the UK. London: Sage.
Kumar, R. (2014). Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners. London: SAGE.
Lane, M. B. (2005). Public Participation in Planning: an intellectual history. Australian Geographer, 36 (3), 283-299. DOI: 10.1080/00049180500325694
Lieske, S. N., Mullen, S., Hamerlinck, J. D. (2009). Enhancing Comprehensive Planning with Public Engagement and Planning Support Integration. In Geertman, S. and Stillwell, J. Eds. (2009). Planning Support Systems: Best Practice and New Methods. Netherlands: Springer.
Matthews, P., Brarnley, G. and Hastings, A. (2015). Homo Economicus in a Big Society: Understanding Middle-class Activism and NIMPYism towards New Housing Developments. Housing, Theory and Society, 32 (1). 54-72. DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2014.947173
Morphet, J. (2008). Modern Local Government. London: SAGE.
Nisbet. J. D. and Watt, K. (1978). Case Study, Rediguide 26. Nottingham: University of Nottingham School of Education.
Olson, M. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Painter, J. Orton, A., Macleod, G., Dominelli, L., and Pande, R. (2011). Connecting Localism and Community Empowerment. Retrieved April 24, 2016 from http://www.mauldenvillage.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/ConnectingLocalismandCommunityEmpowermentFullReport.pdf
Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K. and Strauss, K. (2010). Making Things Happens: A Model of Proactive Motivation. Journal of Management, 36 (4), 827-856. DOI: 10.1177/0149206310363732
Parker, G. and Murray, C. (2012). Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices: findings from participants in local agenda-setting at the neighbourhood scale in England. Town Planning Review, 83 (1), 1-27.
Parker, G., Lynn, T. and Wargent, M. (2015). Ticking to the script? The co-production of neighbourhood planning in England. Town Planning Review, 86 (5), 519-536. DOI: 10.3828/tpr.2015.31
Pratchett, L. (2004). Local autonomy, local democracy and the ‘new localism’. Political studies, 52 (2), pp.358-75.
Rauws, W. (2016). Civic initiatives in urban development: self-governance versus self-organisation in planning practice. Town Planning Review, 87 (3), 339 – 361. DOI: 10.3828/tpr.2016.23
Rydin, Y. and Pennington, M. (2000). Public Participation and Local Environmental Planning: the collective action problem and the potential of social capital. Local Environment, 5 (2), 153-169.
Seabrook, J. (1984). The idea of neighbourhood: What local politics should be about. Palgrave Macmillan.
Secor, A. J. (2010). Social surveys, interviews and focus groups. In Gomez, B. and Johes, J. P. (Eds.) (2010). Research methods in geography: A critical introduction. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
Shaw, D. and Lord, A. (2009). From land-use to 'spatial planning' - Reflections on the reform of the English planning system, Town Planning Review, 80 (4), 415-435.
Smith, L. (1981). A model for the development of public participation in local authority decision-making. In Smith, L. and Jones, D. (1981). Deprivation, Participation and Community Action. London, Boston and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Sturzaker, J. (2011). Can Community Empowerment Reduce Opposition to Housing? Evidence from Rural England, Planning Practice & Research, 26 (5), 555-70. DOI: 10.3828/tpr.2013.30
Sturzaker, J. and Nurse, A. (2020) Rescaling Urban Governance: Planning, Localism and Institutional Change. Bristol: Policy Press.
Tewdwr-Jones, M. and Thomas, H. (1997). Collaborative action in local plan-making: planners’ perceptions of ‘planning through debate’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 25, 127-144.
Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2012). Spatial planning and governance: understanding UK planning. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.